The word strategy is an expression which emanates from military fields and after that has so many different usages in the other fields included economy, commerce and specially politics and governance.
Derivation of the word “Strategy” is a Greek word “Strategia” which means commanding and leading. Nowadays simpler meaning is an acting plan to coordinating and organizing proceedings to reach the goal in martial field of strategy and it commonly used for transferring army in front and behind it before fighting with enemies. It is a tactic not a strategy when the armies fight in the front. In the past especially in the age of Napoleonic Wars, there were apparent differences between strategy and tactic. Strategy was related to the things which were happening behind the front and tactic was related to leading the war in battleground. From the beginning of twentieth century, with the appearance of demarche and national policy, strategy set in a place between Tactic and national policy. This situation caused definitions of national policy, strategy and tactic which were extensive and involved countries which had to fight in several battlegrounds look ineffective. In the response to this the new word and concept “Grand Strategy” which in fact was a combination of strategy and national policy, was appeared. Grand strategy was a concept which in its frame there was partitive strategy such as military strategy, economic strategy, political strategy and country’s commercial strategy. The concept of strategy has a lot of usages in policy. Carl von Clausewitz, one of the greatest military theorists, was told "War is the continuation of politics by other means." Based on this, in the past when policy had changed to military method and was famous as strategy. Later on the word strategy was used as grand policy plan.
Nowadays, in addition to military leaders and politicians, business professionals, economists, industry employers have strategies. Even commons are talking about different strategies in their daily life such as reducing costs, losing weight etc. Of course strategy does not mean goal in here but it is actions and achieving the goals which were set before. Strategy appoints the way of achieving the goals and it does not pay attention to what these goals are or what they should be or how they should be appointed.
In fact, strategy an element in four parts: The first part, the goals which should be achieved. The second part is predestinated strategies to achieve those goals and the method of sources’ appropriation for this purpose. The third part is the tactics to practical use of dedicated resources. Forth part is the resources, ways and methods. According to this, strategy usually fills the chasm between goals and tactics.
Necessity of fore sighting and the way of leading and guiding the organization:
Improving the organization from one situation to a higher situation with no ideas of the business and competitive roadmap is not possible and preparing a game plan in order to please all of your customers and achieving optimal performance through strategy formulation is a shortcut.
If we call a regular collection of knowledge and information about one or more subject as science and skills to apply knowledge in function as art, strategy is a regular awareness which shows how to enlist the political, economic, military and cultural powers to achieve the intended goals.
So, strategy is a science; but all of those who are aware of the strategy science will not be able to apply it. Just the ones who are skilled enough in this field, can use strategy. So in a sense, strategy is a form of art. Briefly, strategy is both science and art.
Author: Amir Salemizadeh
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